Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology
 

Journal of Advances in Food Science & Technology, ISSN No. : 2454-4213, Vol.: 4, Issue.: 2

Original Research Article

STUDY ON ENERGY-NUTRIENT DENSITY, FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM INDIGENOUS PLANT BASED FOOD MATERIALS

 

IJAROTIMI OLUWOLE STEVE1* AND OWOEYE OLUBUKOLA RACHAEL1

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

Abstracts

The food samples were formulated from the combinations of pearl millet, sweet potatoes, soybean cake and moringa leaves flour to obtain three samples as follows: MSS (millet 45%, sweet potato 20%, soybean oil 15%, soybean flour 20%), MSM (millet 45%, sweet potato 20%, soybean oil 15%, moringa 20%) and MSMS (millet 45%, sweet potato 20%, soybean oil 15%, soybean flour 10%, moringa 10%) using standard methods. The range values of crude protein, fiber and energy contents of the formulated complementary foods (CP) were 12.25% - 15.85%, 4.25 – 7.62% and 459.90 – 493.81 kcal/100g respectively. Statistically, the protein and energy values of MSS and MSM were significantly (α =0.05) higher than the control samples (13.90%, 485.99 kcal/100g). For the mineral elements, potassium had the highest concentration (5200 - 6600±57.5 mg/kg), while copper had the lowest value (0.00 - 2.83 mg/kg). The Na/K and Ca/P ratios of the formulated CP ranged as 0.455 - 0.712 and 1.92 - 5.82 respectively. The essential amino acids plus histidine and arginine showed that MSM (a diet containing moringa leave flour) had the highest concentration (48.9 g/100g), while MSMS had the lowest concentration (46.23 g/100g). For the total non-essential amino acids, MSMS sample had the highest concentration (51.06 g/100g), while MSS sample had the lowest concentration (48.26 g/100g). Linoleic acids had the highest concentration (46.168 - 64.83%), whereas erucic acid had the lowest concentration (0.338 – 0.374%) for polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acids varied from 2.514 to 4.059. Phytate, oxalate, tannin and trypsin inhibitor concentration in the formulated CP ranged as follows: 0.41±0.00 - 0.82±0.00 mg/100g, 2.66±0.14 - 4.37±0.05 mg/100g, 3.44±0.1 - 6.38±0.01 mg/100g and 0.13±0.00 - 0.30±0.00 mg/100g respectively, and were higher than control sample, except for phytate. The swelling capacity, water absorption capacity and bulk density of the formulated CP ranged from 1.20 – 1.3%, 2.20 – 2.67 mg/g and 0.69 – 0.78 mg/g respectively, while solubility index of the formulated CP at different temperatures (i.e., 60, 70, 80 & 90ºc) reduced as the temperature increases. In appearance, colour, taste, mouth-feel, flavour and overall acceptability rating, MSS (a diet containing soybean) was rated higher when compared with other formulated CP, that is, MSM and MSMS respectively, and were comparatively rated lower than control sample. The present study reported on nutrient compositions and sensory attributes of formulated complementary foods from the combination of millet, sweet potato, soybeans and Moringa oleifera leaves flour. The MSS sample, i.e., a diet containing the combination of millet, sweet potato and soybeans, was rated best in terms of protein content, energy value, essential amino acids and sensory attributes, hence this diet is suitable for complementary food and also for the treatment of children already suffering from protein-energy malnutrition.

Keywords :

Complementary foods; nutrient-energy density.