Journal of Global Ecology and Environment
 

Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, ISSN No. : 2454-2644, Vol.: 6, Issue.: 4

Short Research Article

POLLUTION AND HEALTH HAZARDS: ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF Enterococcus faecalis AND Enterococcus faecium CHARACTERIZED FOR VIRULENCE GENES, ANTIBIOTIC AND HEAVY METAL RESISTANCE

 

HÉCTOR MANUEL LENDO-HERNÁNDEZ1, JOSÉ JAIME GUTIÉRREZ-MEZA2, ADELA BUENO-DURÁN2, ANTONIO R. MÁRQUEZ-GONZÁLEZ3, MA. ELENA VELÁZQUEZ-MEZA4, NAURÚ IDALIA VARGAS MAYA5, BERNARDO FRANCO5 AND VERÓNICA A. MONDRAGÓN-JAIMES2*

1Posgrado en Ciencias Biológico Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, México.

2Unidad Académica de Ciencias Químico Biológicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, Tepic, Nayarit, C.P. 63155, México.

3Unidad Académica de Economía, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, Tepic, Nayarit, C.P. 63155, México.

4Centro de Investigación Sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos, C.P. 62100, México.

5Departamento de Biología, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Guanajuato, Colonia Noria Alta S/N. Guanajuato, Guanajuato, C.P. 36050, México.

Abstracts

Healthcare-associated infections have become an increasing problem. Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium infect patients as human opportunistic pathogens. Previously, we conducted microbiological analysis at the Mololoa River from the city of Tepic in Nayarit, Mexico. Pollution comes from two different sources, sewage and municipal trash confinement leakage. We found several enterococci isolates that were both antibiotic and heavy metal resistant. In the present study, we examined 18 isolated strains from four different sites for the presence of virulence genes (asa1, gelE, hyl, esp and cylA) and determine potential pathogenic enterococci presence. We found that all isolates analyzed lacked either one or all the major virulence genes and were hemolysin negative. We show that in water bodies the presence of potential virulent strains of enterococci is to diverse and other factors may be involved for the developing of disease by this genus of bacteria.

Keywords :

Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus faecium; virulence genes; environmental isolates; Mololoa River.