Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
 

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, ISSN No. : 2395-4477 (Print), 2395-4485 (Online), Vol.: 12, Issue.: 2

Original Research Article

SEVERITY OF INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN BY HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS STUDY NATIONAL POISON CENTER-CHILDREN´S HOSPITAL SOCIAL SECURITY OF COSTA RICA 2007-2016

 

LUIS JIMENEZ1*, EARVIN MONTERO2, VIVIANA RAMOS2, ANA ZELEDÓN2 AND JESSICA MORERA3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Care and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.

2National Poison Control Center-Children´s Hospital, Social Security of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.

3INIFAR Pharmaceutical Research Institute, University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica.

Abstracts

Severe domestic intoxication in children is an important issue from the point of view of Public Health because of the physical and psychological consequences it causes in children or families, as well as associated costs during hospital care. The objective of this document is to describe the most serious cases of intoxication occurred in the period studied. From 2007 to 2016, 110 cases of poisoning of severity (100 moderate, 9 severe and 1 death) were addressed in the National Poison Control Center of the Children's Hospital of Social Security in Costa Rica (64% men, 36% women) by household agents. One hundred and three cases (94%) were due to preventable causes, especially in one-year-old children, who were the most affected. The main contact route was oral (77%, 85 cases), 64 of the cases occurred in the urban area, although the most severe cases occurred in the rural area. Corrosive cleaners ranked first in severely poisoned (49 cases), signs and symptoms varied according to the causative agent (conventional and corrosive cleaners, flavorings, waxes, batteries, disinfectants, resins). Intoxicated children had respiratory problems (cough, dyspnea, bronchial aspiration); metabolic (dehydration, edema, cyanosis); dermatological problems (dermatitis, rashes, burns); digestive problems (irritation, pain, sialorrhea, vomiting, burning, diarrhea) and neurological problems (dizziness, tremors, fever). Children in their first years of life are the most vulnerable to poisoning by toxic agents present in the home, especially by ingestion and preventable causes; although more cases occur in the urban area, when considering the signs and symptoms presented by children, in rural areas are more serious, the agents involved include corrosive cleaners and potassium hydroxide; the signs and symptoms affect various systems like the digestive and the nervous. Integral interventions are required to minimize the number of child intoxication cases by household products.

Keywords :

Severity; intoxication; children; household products; Poison Control Center.